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We use the present perfect to speak about things which happened or began to happen
in the past and which are linked to the present or future.

It is often used with adverbs such as just, already, ever and yet and with time phrases
with for and since
if the span of time  .

Present perfect with just /already

Just often means nearness the present, so it is often used with the present perfect.
suggests that something has happened sooner than
perhaps expected
and again is linked with present time and therefore the present perfect:

         Do you want me to make the salad for supper tonight?
 ~ I've
already made it. It's on the table.   THIS IS A RESULT.

(Americans use the past with just.)


Present perfect with yet / ever / never / always

These indefinite time adverbs suggest at any time up till now,
so they are ideally suited for use with the present perfect:

         Have you ever driven a car with automatic drive?
~ No, I
never have. I've always driven cars with manual drive.
~ It's not too hard. You'll soon get used to it.

         I don't think you've met Brigid yet, have you?
~ No, I haven't. I've met many friends from work, but I have not met Brigid
~ She's absolutely lovely. I'm sure you'll like her.

Notice how in these examples the present perfect is linked to the future
as well as the present.


Present perfect with no indefinite time adverb

Note that we often use the present perfect with no indefinite time adverb, even though we are thinking of a period of time up to the present. In the following examples, yet is understood but not used:


Present perfect with since / for (SEIT)

If we want to measure duration up to the present, we use the present perfect.

We use          for with a span of time or period

since with the beginning of an event:


Present perfect continuous with since and for

Since and for are very often used with the present perfect continuous even when something
is not seen as provisional. The Ėing form
stresses the on-going nature of the activity:

Note that with static verbs, i.e. verbs which describe a state rather than an action,
verbs such as agree, consider, feel, find, know, like, love, prefer,
continuous form is not normally used, even if the continuous, on-going aspect is stressed:

© 2004 R. WYSS