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FRUIT TREES IN OUR ORCHARD
Gravensteiner, Gråsten, Banks Red Gravenstein, Early Congress
Origin: A very old apple of European origin believed to have originated in the 1600's with Duke Augustenberg of Castle Gravenstein (Gråsten) in Nord-Schlewsig, Denmark, on the German border.
It was introduced into the United States in the 1820's by Russian settlers moving into California.
Harvest: August to September
Ripeness: Best by the end of October.- The apple is not a good keeper.
Fruit: An oblong or lopsided fruit having bright yellow skin with a pinkish-orange flush and light red striping. The creamy yellow flesh is tender, crisp, juicy, and aromatic.
Tree: This variety loves a warm soil and good sun; it grows vigorously and makes stately trees.
Berner Rosen, Berner Rosenapfel, Rose de Berne, Rose of Bern(e)
Origin: The seedling was found around 1870 in a forest near Oppingen in the Canton of Bern, in Switzerland.
Harvest: End of September
Ripeness: November to March
Fruit: middling in size, rather long, flushed with shining carmesine red; the flesh is white, often with a reddish tinge; of a pleasant, sweet, vinous flavour.
Tree: This variety loves a good soil, not too loamy; hollows should be eschewed. Prone to scab, the tree needs good pruning and careful looking after.
Bg, K, AGR, W
King of the Pippins
Golden Winter Pearmain, Goldparmäne, Pearmain Doré d'Hiver
Origin: An apple of French or English origin formerly known as Golden Winter Pearmain was introduced into Brompton, England around 1800 as King of the Pippins. .
Ripeness: October to January
Fruit: A wonderful apple, middling in size, rather long and conical in shape and sometimes lopsided.but full of flavor. The skin is golden yellow with a reddish-orange blush and prominent red striping.The creamy white flesh is fine-grained and juicy with a pleasant sweet flavourthat recalls almond or walnut when fully ripe. when fully ripe. It is also noted for its fine cider qualities.
Tree: The tree has grown vigorously in our garden, it is healthy on the whole but needs watching for scab and monilia. It needs a warm climate and full sun. It bears heavily every other year; I have not been able so far to persuade it to bear a good crop every year. It needs careful pruning and some thinning when there are a lot of young fruits.
Bg, S, AD, W
Suurgrauech, Grauech, Rienggel, Pomme Raisin, Raisin
Origin: Old variety, most likely from the Canton of Bern. It is widespread in the Cantons of Bern, Solothurn, Basel-Landschaft, Freiburg and also found elsewhere in Switzerland, southern Alsace, southern Germany and Austria.
Harvest: End of September, early Oktober
Ripeness: October to Mid-January
Fruit: middling in size, light green flushed with carmine red to vermilion, often in stripes; very juicy, of a pleasant vinous flavour, sweet and sour. While both a desert and culinary apple, it is in great demand from cider makers in the Canton of Bern and neighbouring areas.
Tree: The tree grows slowly, but steadily till it is very old. It bears willingly every year and needs good thinning, especially while it is still young.
Bg, K, W
Origin: Seedling from our garden in Attiswil, most likely a descent of Berlepsch.
Harvest: End of September, early October
Ripeness: October to December
Fruit: medium-sized to large, yellow, flushed with shining scarlet; strong ribs like Berlepsch; of a pleasant, slightly sour taste.
Tree: The seedling grows vigorously in our garden, it seems somewhat prone to cancer.
Woodstock Pippin, Kempster Pippin, Blenheim Pippin
Origin: This very lovely apple was found in 1740 at Woodstock near Blenheim in Oxfordshire, England. The seedling grew in the garden of George Kempster who died in 1773. The apple was originally known as the Kempster Pippin but in 1811 the name was changed to Blenheim Orange in honour of Blenheim Palace, the residence of the Duke of Marlborough. It first began to receive recognition in 1818 and by the 1820's was widespread throughout Europe and America.
Ripeness: Ripens October to January.
Fruit: The fruit is large and is a slightly flattened. The skin is dull greenish-yellow and mostly flushed with speckled reddish-orange. The flesh is creamy white, coarse, firm, and moderately juicy. The flavour is fine and very pleasant. Dessert apple, but a particularly good apple for cakes.
Tree: The tree grows vigorously, but only to moderate size. It is very healthy.
Freiherr von Berlepsch
Origin: Von Dietrich Uhlhorn in Grevenbroich, Niederrhein, 1880 aus Sämlingen der Kreuzung ´Ananasrenette´ und ´Ribston Pepping´ausgelesen und nach H. Freiherr von Berlepsch, dem damaligen Regierungspräsidenten von Düsseldorf, benannt.
Harvest: Ende Oktober bis November
Ripeness: November bis Ende März
Fruit: mittelgroßer, vitaminreichster Tafelapfel. Er wird oft der Cox vorgezogen, da sein Fleisch fester und frischer ist und nicht so südländisch schmeckt.
Tree: gedeiht nur auf frosthartem Stammbildner; auf schweren Böden krebsanfällig .
Origin: seedling by the English grower Mr. Rivers, introduced in 1894.
Harvest: late September, early october
Ripeness: October to November
Fruit: Medium to large, slightly large, gourd shaped fruit. Smooth, green skin tinted with russet. Pale yellow flesh with slight pink tinge; sweet, melting and very juicy.
Tree: Medium sized tree, requires cross-polination. Good reliability under less than perfect conditions. The tree grows quite vigorously in our garden. It bears a lot of fruit and needs rigorous pruning so that the leaders and laters do not break.
Große grüne Reine Claude, Zuckerpflaume, Reine Claude Verte, Abricot Vert
Origin: Old plum, presumably from Armenia, named after the wife of King Francis I of France. Grown in France since the 15th century.
Harvest and Ripeness: August - September
Fruit: ball-shaped to flat, the stone often does not loosen easily; green to goldbrown; flesh greenish yellow, jucy, very sweet, with strong, pleasant aroma. Suitable to be eaten raw or made into jam.
Tree: The tree grows vigorously in the beginning, but only to middling size. It is fairly sound but nevertheless prone to monilia and therefore needs watching.
Origin: This plum was first found in Germany in 1896.
Harvest and Ripeness: End of July, August.
Fruit: big, fairly long, the stone loosens with moderate ease; blue; flesh golden to orange, jucy, very sweet, with strong, outstanding aroma. Suitable to be eaten raw or made into jam. Acitidity is released through cooking, so that it becomes quite sour.
Tree: The tree grows vigorously and upright in the beginning, but slackens after some years. It is healthy, but loves a good warm soil. It is a good bearer in most years.
Origin: This cherry is an old variety from Basel-Landschaft, Switzerland. it is widespread in the northwestern Switzerland, which is a strong tradition of cherry-growing thanks to its limy soils.
Harvest and Ripeness: End of July, August.
Fruit: middlesized, heartshaped, brownish black to deep black; flesh jucy, sweet, with mild aroma. Suitable to be eaten raw or made into jam as well as for distilling.
Tree: The tree grows fairly vigorously and upright, but makes good laterals. It is healthy a good bearer in most years.
Hans Kessler, Apfelsorten der Schweiz, Buchverlag Verbandsdruckerei Bern, Bern 1947
Hans Kessler, Birnensorten der Schweiz, Buchverlag Verbandsdruckerei Bern, Bern 1948
Robert Silbereisen, Apfelsorten - Marktsorten, Neuheiten und Mostäpfel, Verlag Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 1975
A. Aeppli, U. Gremminger, Ch. Rapillard, K.Röthlisberger, 100 Obstsorten, Landwirtschaftliche Lehrmittelzentrale, Zollikofen (Bern) 1983
Rosanne Sanders, The English Apple, Phaidon, Oxford 1988
Silvio Martini, Geschichte der Pomologie in Europa, Druck Stutz & Co, Wädenswil / Bern 1988
Baumgartner Baumschulen, 84378 Nöham bei Pfarrkirchen, http://www.baumgartner-baumschulen.de
Big Horse Creek Farm, P.O. Box 70, Lansing, NC 28643, http://www.bighorsecreekfarm.com
Neva Rolls, Apple Variety DescriptionsHastings, Nebraska, http://incolor.inebraska.com/nrolls/a_desc.html
Neva Rolls, Pear Variety DescriptionsHastings, Nebraska, http://incolor.inebraska.com/nrolls/p_desc.html